NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 Development
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved
What do you understand by the term ‘development’? Would all sections of society benefit from such a definition of development?
The term ‘Development’ can be understood better in both the broader and narrower sense:
- In a broader sense, development conveys the ideas of improvement, progress, well¬being and aspiration for better life to constitute the vision for society as a whole and how to achieve it.
- In a narrower sense, it refers to more limited goals as increasing the rate of economic growth, etc.
Benefits to different sections of society:
- Development has been identified with completing projects like factories, dams, hospitals, national high ways rather than to uphold the broader vision of development into the society.
- Some sections like industrialists have been benefitted while others like up-rooted families and landless people, etc. have lost their homes or lands without any compensatory gain.
- Though, issues regarding the benefits and burdens of development either have been justly distributed or not, have been a main concern for developmental priorities in a democratic setup.
This issue is of debate which model should be adopted to serve as a standard by which the development experience of a country is examined.
Discuss some of the social and ecological costs of the kind of development which has been
pursued in most countries.
Social costs of development:
- Displacement resulted in the loss of livelihood and increased impoverishment.
- Many peoples have been displaced from their homes and localities due to urbanization and industrialization, etc.
- If rural agricultural communities are displaced to end up at the margins of society.
- It results in a loss of culture due to loss of community life because traditional skills acquired over a long period, are also lost.
- Displacement has led to struggles in many countries like India is Narmada Bachao Andolan against Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada.
- The supporters of this dam claimed to generate electricity, irrigate large areas of land and to provide drinking water to the desert areas of Kutch and Saurashtra whereas the opponents of the dam claim to lose the land through construction by almost one million people.
Ecological costs of development:
- Environmental degradation took place, i.e. Tsunami created damage to a greater extent on South and South East Asia coasts in 2005.
- Global warming is also taking place due to emissions of greenhouse gases into the environment, i.e. ice-melting in Arctic and Antarctic regions has the potential to cause floods and submerge low lying areas like Bangladesh and Maldives.
- The ecological crisis will adversely affect us, i.e. air pollution.
- Deforestation also affect the forest resources, i.e. medical herbs, firewood or timber, etc.
What are some of the new claims for rights which the process of development has
- In reality, the benefits of development have been concerned by powerful and costs of development have been borne by the poorest and vulnerable section due to ecological degradation, displacement and lost of livelihood.
- Another claim is to have a right to be consulted in decision directly which affect the lives of the people.
- The people can claim if an activity or law sanctioned by the government threatens the lives of the people.
- The claim can be used to have a right to use natural resources by various communities and tribes, etc.
- The claim to belong to natural resources, i.e. local community or common resource of whole humanity.
- Democracies focus to achieve a balance between the claims of present and future.
What would be the advantages of democracy over other forms of government for ensuring that decisions regarding development are made to promote the common good?
- Democracy is the best form of government because the conflicts are resolved through debates with the involvement of in formulating the goals of development and in devising way of implementing it.
- Democracy makes a clear distinction between a plan made by others and sharing in the formulation of the plans because the others may plan with the best intentions but may be less aware of specific needs and the sharing shows the empowerment in decision making process.
- Democracy and development are interrelated to ensure participation is to allow local decision making bodies to take decisions about development projects in the local area.
- The people may be consulted on the issues to affect the people most and to reject them if it affects adversely to the community.
- Direct involvement of people in planning and formulating policies allow people to direct resources towards their needs.
- A decentralized approach to development makes it possible to use different types of technologies traditional and modern in a creative manner.
In your view, how successful have popular struggles been in making the state responsive to the social and environmental costs of development? Discuss with examples.
Yes, popular struggles have got a great success in making state responsible to the social and environmental costs of development:
- The concept of ‘development’ gained importance after the second half of twentieth century when a large number of countries in Asia and Africa got political freedom from colonialism.
- In the beginning years, the focus was on catching up with the west in terms of economic growth and modernisation of societies.
- Earlier the state was the only agency capable of initiating that type of social and economic change and several nations embarked upon ambitious projects of development, generally with the assistance of loans and aid from the developed countries, i.e. five years plans in India since 1950s.(d) The model of development adopted by India and other countries has come under a great deal of criticism over the years and this led to some rethinking about the objectives and processes of development today.
- Construction of Sardar Sarovar project was challenged on the ground to displace the tribal people and local inhabitants living near the areas of this dam and initiatives were taken by Narmada Bachao Andolan by Medha Patekar.
- Some well-known environmental groups include Green Peace and World Wildlife Fund, etc.
- In India Chipko Movement took place under the leadership of Sunder Lai Bahuguna to protect the Himalayan forests to pressurise the government to modify industrial and developmental policies of government.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 NCERT Extra Questions Solved
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 NCERT Very Short Answer Type Questions
How can we define ‘Development’ in a broader sense?
In a broader sense, the development conveys the ideas of improvement, progress, well-being and an aspiration for a better life to articulate its vision for society as a whole.
Define ‘Development’ in a narrower sense?
It refers to more limited goals such as to increase the rate of economic growth or modernising the society, i.e. construction of dams or hospitals or factories without any compensatory gains.
What is development?
Development may be an increase in national economy or for others it may be social development or some others may feel it to be modernization.
What is underdevelopment?
Underdevelopment refers to low level of living, productivity, income related to political, ecological and economic environment tends to result in low level of life. But it can be reversed by making changes in social, economic and political structures.
What is democratic participation?
Democratic participation refers to the right of people to participate in decision-making of political affairs.
How can you define development?
- Development is a multidimensional process involving changes in structures, attitudes, institutions and acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality and eradication of poverty.
- It may be transformation from traditional society to modernization.
Give the definition of development given by Riggs?
Riggs, “Development involves the ability to choose whether or not to increase outputs, whether or not to raise levels of per capita income or to direct energies to other goals, to the more equitable distribution of what is available to spiritual values or qualitatively different kinds of outputs.”
How can we say that different models of development adopted on different nations have been the subject of debate and criticism?
- On the grounds of just distribution whether the benefits and burdens of development priorities have democratically been made or not.
- Models adopted in different countries also have become the subject of criticism to put forward alternative models of development.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 NCERT Short Answer Type Questions
What is the welfare model in crisis?
- A welfare state provides basic needs of the people and at least employment to one and all in the society in the fields of industrial development, social welfare, environment, security and defence.
- This crisis takes place in stagnant economy to be devoid of scope for further expansion.
- In Europe and America, strong political movement oppose the welfare state where neo-liberals want to go back to the market model of development.
- Market model of development increased unemployment and inflation resulting political violence and racism.
- In India, Dalit politics wants quick economic and social results and not contended to wait.
What is modernization?
- It is a systematic process involving complementary change in the demographic, social, economic and political sectors of society to increase material standard of living and subsidiary phenomenon, etc.
- Modernization is the goal to be achieved by the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America to be meant development in all fields of life, i.e. towards modernization.
- Modernization is an onward phenomena, a forward movement or a movement towards an economic diversification within an industrial technology, heightened social mobility and towards impersonal and rationalised social relationships.
What are the alternative concepts of development?
- Unequal distribution of costs and benefits of development on the huge costs of human and environment.
- The ‘top-down’ strategy adopted by countries decide the development projects and implementation of development by the higher level of political leadership and bureaucracy.
- The peoples who are normally affected by the development projects are hardly consulted.
- Even people’s experience and knowledge are also not taken into account along with their interests.
What are the characteristics of development?
- Development is a dyr imic concept involving ever changing and ever evolving nature to be needed with some improvement.
- Development is a multidimensional concept not only limited to economic spheres, but to political and social spheres also.
- Development implies growth where all societies keep growing in the process of ever change and ever evolution.
- Development is closely related to technology to make society and a nation more advanced.
- Development provides a rational and reason bound society in place of traditionally or religiously bound society.
- Development refers a sustainable growth to grow a country in peaceful and harmonious way.
‘The process of development also have an affect on life style of people’. Justify.
- Development should not be considered in reference of materialistic approach only but in terms happiness, harmony and satisfaction of essential requirements also.
- Efforts should be made to conserve natural resources to use renewable sources of energy up to possible extent.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 NCERT Passage-Based Questions
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 149) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Just imagine that a hidden treasure is found in your backyard. How will you feel if the treasure is taken away little by little by authorities in the name of development? This development is not reflected in your standard of living or even in facilities for the colony you stay in. Further, your house as a site for the treasure is constantly vandalised by people who claim to use the treasure for development. Isn’t it gross injustice for the people in whose house the treasure has been unearthed?
Oil had been found in the region of Ogoni in Nigeria in 1950s which resulted in crude oil exploration. Soon economic growth and big business created around it an entangled web of political intrigues, environmental problems and corruption. This prevented development of the very region where oil had been found.
Ken Saro-Wiwa, an Ogoni by birth, was recognised as an author, journalist and television producer in the 1980s. In his work, he observed and reacted to the exploitation around him as the oil and gas industry took riches from beneath the feet of the poor Ogoni farmers, and in return left the land polluted and the people disenfranchised.
Saro-Wiwa led a non-violent struggle with the launch of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) in 1990 — an open, grassroots community-based political movement. The movement was so effective, that by 1993 the oil companies had to pull out of Ogoni. But Saro-Wiwa paid the price for this. The military rulers of Nigeria framed him in a murder case and the military tribunal sentenced him to death. Saro-Wiwa said that the military rulers were doing this on behest of Shell, the multi-national oil company that had to withdraw from the Ogoni region. Human rights organisations all over the world protested against this trial and appealed for his release. Ignoring this world-wide protest, the Nigerian rulers executed Ken Saro-Wiwa in 1995.
1. Who was ken Saro-Wiwa?
2. Mention some great activities of Ken Saro-Wiwa?
3. How was Ken Saro-Wiwa was framed and executed by authoritarian rulers of his country?
1. Ken Saro-Wiwa, an Ogoni by birth was recognised as an author, journalist and television producer in 1980’s.
2. Ken Saro Wiwa led a non-violent struggle with the launch of the movement for the survival of the ogoni people (mosop) in 1990-an open, grassroots community based political movement to be effective by 1993 which pulled out oil companies from ogoni but Sara-Wiwa paid the price for this.
3. The military rulers of Nigeria framed him in murder case and military tribunal sentenced him to death. Human rights organisations all over the world protested against his trial and appealed to release him. But ignoring all these Ken Saro Wiwa was executed in 1995 by Nigerian rulers.
Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, page 156) given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The idea of development refers to the desire for a better life. This is a very powerful desire and the hope of improvement is a driving force of human action. In this chapter we have seen how widely accepted versions of what constitutes improvement have come under critical scrutiny. There is a multi-pronged search for a more equitable, sustainable and democratic model of development. In the process, a number of concepts of political theory such as equality, democracy and rights, have been reinterpreted.
The issues that have arisen while pursuing the goal of development reveal that the choices we make have an impact upon others human beings and other species in the world. We must therefore see ourselves as part of the larger universe for our fates are linked together. Besides, my actions not only affect others, they also have an impact upon my own future possibilities. We need therefore to choose carefully, keeping in mind not just our present needs but also our long-term interests.
1. What is the idea of development?
2. What are the main concepts of political theory?
3. What should be kept in mind vchile making choices regarding development?
1. It refers to the desire for a better life and the hope of improvement as a driving force in a human action.
2. Equality, democratic rights and participation in political affairs by peoples.
3. 1. One’s actions does not only affect others but have an impact upon one’s future possibilities also.
2. To keep in mind, the present needs and long term interests also.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 NCERT Long Answer Type Questions
What is a sustainable development? Elaborate.
Sustainable development meets the well-being needs of present and future generations to be concerned with evolution over a long period of time focusing on stability issues and structural changes resulting in qualitative characteristics of a state.
Sustainable development is a process of change in which exploitation of resources, direction of investment, the orientation of technological changes are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Sustainable development balances the claims of present generation with claims of future generation:
- In the past decade a shift has taken place from partial environmental analysis to a focus on the global effects of environmental decay-reflected among other things in alarming phenomenon such as flooding, acid rain, soil erosion, destruction of ozone layer, ocean pollution, etc.
- Resource conservation and pollution control are now recognised as essential to protect life supporting natural systems and to improve living standard.
- Principle of sustainable development would necessarily require a fundamental change in thinking.
- The decision making must reflect the true cost of resource depletion and pollution to effect future generations rather than just the short term costs of profits of depleting income producing resources.
- Sustainable development is an alternative to the development of any cost to be identified with the drive to modernisation of earlier decades.
- Deforestation may be necessary for agricultural development in a regional economy like Brazil, but it can be detrimental to the global ecological stability.
- To cope with the growing problems of land pressure in India, it requires to check and control the population growth rate, to ensure balanced livestock development and control and alienation, etc.
What measures can be adopted to maintain sustainable development?
- To maintain ecosystem and related ecological processes for function of biosphere.
- To maintain biological diversity by ensuring the survival and promoting the conservation in their natural habitats of species of flora and fauna.
- To observe the principle of optimum sustainable yield in the exploitation of living natural resources and ecosystems.
- To prevent significant environment harms.
- To make all relevant information public without delay in the cases of harmful radioactive releases or pollutants, etc.
- To establish environmental protection standards.
- To require prior assessments to ensure that major law policies, projects and technological contributions to make sustainable development.
What are the strategies for maintenance of sustainable development?
To sustain the development, the following strategies have been formulated:
Population challenge and strategy:
(a) Population growth increases the demand for goods and services but it can increase environmental damage also.
(b) Population control is required:
- Access to family planning services to be increased.
- Income of poor households must rise.
- Child mortality must decline.
- Educational and employment opportunities must also expand especially for women.
Water and Sanitation:
- Water resources should be managed for optimum utilization, i.e. efficient allocation of river basins, use of irrigation water in an efficient manner, etc.
- Investment in sanitation should he made for sewage collection than on its treatment.
- Institutional arrangements should be improved, i.e. utilities need to be made more autonomous and accountable for their performance and should be placed on sound financial footing.
Emissions from Industry, Transport and Energy Pollutants:
- Household energy pollution should be reduced by use of biomass stoves, clean cols, and a transition to gas, electricity and solar energy.
- Reduction in pollution from electric power generation also requires both improved management and investment in abotement technologies. Because shifting of natural gas and using clean cool technologies can reduce emissions of particulates and carbon monoxide, etc.
- Pollution from transport and industries should also be reduced by the use of new technologies and investment in pollution control equipment’s.
- Renewable sources of energy should be encouraged for best long term prospects, etc., i.e. solar energy, wind energy,
Rural environmental concerns:
- To prevent resource degradation
- To preserve valuable natural forests, wetlands, coastal areas, grasslands for future generations.
- Local communities must be involved in devising and implementing conservation and development projects.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 NCERT Picture-Based Questions
1. Read the cartoon (NCERT Textbook, page 146) given below and answer the questions that follow:
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. What does the statement referred in cartoon ‘ x imply?
1. The worries of displaced people due to urbanization and construction.
2. The people likely to be displaced due to any big project are not going to accept their fate positively with the thought of ruined economically, socially, culturally also.