Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 10

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Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Class 7 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 10

NCERT Extra Questions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 10 Eighteenth-Century Political Formations

Prelude

Question 1.
How were the boundaries of the Mughal Empire reshaped in the first
half of the 18th century?
Answer:

  • The boundaries of the Mughal Empire were reshaped by the emergence of a number of independent kingdoms.
  • By 1765, another power, the British, had successfully grabbed major chunks of territory in eastern India.
  • The political conditions in eighteenth century India changed quite dramatically
    and within a relatively short span of time.

NOTES: New political groups emerged in the subcontinent.
It happened after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 till third battle of Panipat in 1761.

The Crisis of the Empire and the Later Mughals

Question 1.
What were the causes responsible for various crises of the Mughal Empire towards the closing year of the 17th century?
Answer:
Mughal Empire reached the height of its success and started facing a variety of crises towards the closing years of the seventeenth century.
These were caused by a number of factors:

  • Emperor Aurangzeb had depleted the military and financial resources of his empire by fighting a long war in the Deccan.
  • Under his successors, the efficiency of the imperial administration broke down.
  • It was increasingly difficult for the later Mughal emperors to keep a check on their powerful mansabdars.
  • Nobles appointed as governors (subadars) often controlled the offices of revenue and military administration (diwani and faujdari) as well.
  • The governors consolidated their control over the provinces and revenue declined.

Peasant and zamindari rebellions in many parts of northern and western India added to their problems:

  • These revolts were sometimes caused by the pressures of mounting taxes.
  • At other times there were attempts by powerful chieftains to consolidate their own position.
  • Mughal authority was challenged by rebellious groups in the past as well. But these groups were now able to seize the economic resources of the region to consolidate their positions.

The Mughal emperors after Aurangzeb were unable to arrest the gradual shifting of political and economic authority into the hands of provincial governors, local chieftains and other groups.

Question 2.
Which foreign invaders came in the middle of the economic and political crisis in 1739?
Answer:

  • In the middle of the economic and political crisis, the ruler of Iran, Nadir Shah, attacked and plundered the city of Delhi in 1739.
  • He took away immense amount of wealth.
  • A series of plundering raids by the Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali occurred afterwards. He invaded north India five times between 1748 and 1761.

Question 3.
How was the empire further weakened?
Answer:
The empire was already under severe pressures from all sides.
It was further weakened by competition amongst different groups of nobles.

  • They were divided into two major groups or fractions; the Iranis and Turanis.
  • For a long time, the later Mughal emperors were puppets in the hands of either one or the other of these too powerful groups.
  • The worst possible humiliation came when two Mughal emperors, Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719) and Alamgir II (1754-1759) were assassinated.
  • Two others Ahmad Shah (1748-1754) and Shah Alam II (1759-1816) were blinded by their nobles.

Question 4.
How a contemporary writer gave a account of bankruptcy of the empire?
Answer:
A contemporary writer wrote that:

  • The lords were helpless and impoverished.
  • Peasants raised two crops a year but taxes were not paid.
  • Administration collapsed and the lords didn’t get any benefit.
  • Lords could not maintain soldiers or horsemen.

Question 5.
Give an account of Nadir Shah attacking Delhi.
Answer:
Nadir Shah Attacked Delhi:

  • Nadir Shah’s looting is described as below:
  • Sixty lakh of rupees and some thousand gold coins, nearly one crore worth of gold- ware, nearly fifty crore worth of jewels, most of them unrivaled in the world, and the above included the peacock throne.
  • Another account described the invasion’s impact upon Delhi:
  • Those who had been masters were now in dire straits; and those who had been revered couldn’t even quench their thirst.
  • The New City (Shahjahanabad) was turned into rubble.
  • Nadir Shah then attacked the old quarters of the city and destroyed a whole world that existed there.

Emergence of New States

Question 1.
How did the new states emerge?
Answer:
Emergence of New States:

  • With the decline of the Mughal emperors, the governors of large provinces, subadars, and the great zamindars consolidated their authority in different parts of the subcontinent.
  • Through the eighteenth century, the Mughal Empire gradually fragmented into a number^of independent, regional states.

The states of the eighteenth century were divided into three overlapping groups:

  • States that were old Mughal provinces like Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad.
  • The rulers of these states did not break their formal ties with the Mughal emperor.
  • States that had enjoyed considerable independence under the Mughals as watan jagirs.
  • They included several Rajput principalities.
  • The last group included states under the control of Marathas, Sikhs, and others like the Jats.
  • They were of differing sizes.
  • They had seized their independence from the Mughals after a long drawn armed struggle.

The Old Mughal Provinces

Question 1.
Who were the very powerful governors of Awadh, Bengal and Hyderabad among the early and later Mughal rulers?
Answer:

  • Sa‘adat Khan was powerful governor of Awadh with zat rank *6,000.
  • Murshid Quli Khan was powerful governor of Bengal with zat rank 7,000.
  • Asaf Jah was powerful governor of Hyderabad with zat rank 7,000.

Hyderabad

Question 1.
How did Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah become the actual ruler of the Deccan?
Answer:

  • Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah was the founder of Hyderabad state.
  • He was one of the most powerful member at the court of the Mughal Emperor Farrukh Siyar.
  • He was entrusted first with the governorship of Awadh and later given charge of the Deccan.
  • As the Mughal governor of the Deccan provinces, Asaf Jah already had full control over its political and financial administration.
  • He took advantage of the turmoil in the Deccan and the competition amongst the court nobility.
  • He gathered power in his hands and became the actual ruler of that region.

Question 2.
How did Asaf Jah consolidate his power?
Answer:

  • Asaf Jah brought skilled soldiers and administrators from northern India.
  • They welcomed the new opportunities in the south.
  • Asaf Jah appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs.
  • Although he was still a servant of the Mughal emperor, he ruled quite independently without seeking any direction from Delhi or facing any interference.
  • The Mughal emperor merely confirmed the decisions already taken by the Nizam.

Question 3.
Why was the state of Hyderabad constantly engaged in struggle? What was the result?
Answer:
The state of Hyderabad was constantly engaged in struggle because:

  • It was against the Marathas to the west and with independent Telugu warriors chief (nayakas) of the plateau.
  • The ambitions of the Nizam to control the rich textile producing areas of the coromandal coast in the east were checked by the British.
  • They were becoming increasingly powerful in that region.

Awadh

Question 1.
How did Burhan-ul-Mulk become powerful?
Answer:

  • Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa’adat Khan was appointed subadar of Awadh in 1722.
  • He founded a state which was one of the most important to emerge out of the break up of the Mughal Empire.
  • Awadh was a prosperous region.
  • It controlled the rich alluvial Ganga plain.
  • It served the main trade route between north India and Bengal.
  • Burhan-ul-Mulk also held the combined offices of subadari, diwani, and faujdari.
  • Actually he was responsible for managing the political, financial and military affairs of the province of Awadh.

Question 2.
How did Burhan-ul-Mulk try to decrease the Mughal influence?
Answer:
Burhan-ul-Mulk tried to decrease Mughal influence in the Awadh region.

  • He reduced the number of office holders (Jagirdars) appointed by the mughals.
  • He also reduced the size of jagirs.
  • He appointed his own loyal servants to vacant positions.
  • The accounts of jagirdars were checked to prevent cheating.

The revenues of all districts were reassessed by officials appointed by the Nawab’s court.
He seized a number of Rajput zamindaris and the agriculturally fertile lands of the Afghans of Rohilkhand.

Question 3.
How did the new social groups come into being?
Answer:

  • The state depended on local bankers and mahajans for loans.
  • It sold the right to collect tax to the highest bidders.
  • These ‘revenue farmers’ (ijaradars) agreed to pay the state a fixed sum of money.
  • Local bankers guaranteed the payment of this contracted amount to the state.
  • In turn, the revenue-farmers were given considerable freedom in the assessment and collection of taxes.
  • These developments allowed new social groups, like moneylenders and bankers, to influence the management of the state’s revenue system.
  • It was something which had not occurred in the past.

Question 4.
Who were Ijaradars?
Answer:
Ijaradars were the revenue farmers who bought the right to collect revenue and agreed to pay the state a fixed sum of money. This system was known as Ijaradari system.

Bengal

Question 1.
How did Murshid Quli Khan become powerful in Bengal?
Answer:

  • Bengal gradually broke away from Mughal control under Murshid Quli Khan.
  • Murshid Quli Khan was appointed as the naib, deputy to the governor of the province.
  • He was never a formal subadar, but he seized all the power of the subadar very quickly.
  • Like the rulers of Hyderabad and Awadh, he also commanded the revenue administration of the state.
  • In order to reduce Mughal influence in Bengal he transferred all Mughals’ jagirdars to Orissa.

He ordered a major reassessment of the revenues of Bengal:

  • Revenue was collected in cash with great strictness from all zamindars.
  • It resulted in, many zamindars being forced to borrow money from bankers and moneylenders.
  • Those unable to pay were forced to sell their lands to larger zamindars.

Question 2.
How did formation of a regional state in 18th century Bengal lead to considerable changes?
Answer:

  • The formation of a regional state in eighteenth century Bengal led to considerable change amongst the zamindars.
  • The close connection between the state and bankers which was noticeable in
    Hyderabad and Awadh was evident in Bengal under the rule of Alivardi Khan (1740-1756).
  • During his reign the banking house of Jagat Seth became extremely prosperous.

Question 3.
Describe the common features of the three states—Hyderabad, Bengal and Awadh.
Answer:
The three states of Hyderabad, Awadh and Bengal had certain common features:

  • They were all established by the Mughal nobles who were given the jagir or the governorship of the territory.
  • Their methods of tax collection differed and they used their own officials for this.
  • They contracted with “revenue farmers” for collection of revenue and the practice of “ijaradari” though disapproved by the Mughals spread all over India.
  • All these regional states had relationship with the bankers and money lenders.
  • They received land as security and collected tax from there through agents.
  • Social strata of these states was reorganized to a greater extent.

The Watan Jagirs of the Rajputs

Question 1.
Describe the watan jagirs of the Rajputs.
Ans.
The watan jagirs of the Rajputs:

  • Many Rajput kings mostly of Amber and Jodhpur, had served under the Mughals with distinction.
  • In exchange, they were permitted to enjoy considerable autonomy in their watan jagirs.
  • In the eighteenth century, these rulers attempted to extend their control over adjacent regions.
  • Ajit Singh, the ruler of Jodhpur, was also involved in the factional politics at the Mughal court.
  • These Rajput families claimed the subadari of the rich provinces of Gujarat and Malwa.
  • Raja Ajit Singh of Jodhpur held the governorship of Gujarat.
  • Sawai Raja Jai Singh of Amber was governor of Malwa.
  • These offices were renewed by Emperor Jahandar Shah in 1713.
  • They also tried to extend their territories by seizing portions of imperial territories adjacent to their watans.
  • Nagaur was conquered and annexed to the house of Jodhpur.
  • Amber seized large portions of Bundi.
  • Sawai Raja Jai Singh founded his new capital at Jaipur.
  • He was given the subadari of Agra in 1722.
  • Maratha campaigns into Rajasthan from the 1740s put severe pressure on these principalities and checked their further expansion.

Question 2.
Describe in brief about Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur.
Answer:

  • Raja Jai Singh was at the height of his power.
  • He was the governor of Agra for 12 years and of Malwa for 5 to 6 years.
  • He possessed a large army, artillery and great wealth.
  • His sway extended from Delhi to the banks of the Narmada.

Seizing Independence

The Sikhs

Question 1.
How did Sikhs become a political power?
Answer:

  • The organisation of the Sikhs into a political community during the seventeenth century helped in regional state-building in the Punjab.
  • Several battles were fought by Guru Gobind Singh against the Rajput and Mughal rulers, both before and after set up of the Khalsa in 1699.
  • After his death in 1708, the Khalsa rose in revolt against the Mughal authority uhder Banda Bahadur’s leadership.
  • The Khalsa declared their sovereign rule by striking coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh.
  • They established their own administration between the Sutlej and the Jamuna.
  • Under a number of able leaders in the eighteenth century, the Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called jathas, and later on misls.
  • Their combined forces were known as the grand army (dal khalsa).

Question 2.
Which were the many practices started by the Sikhs?
Answer:

  • The entire body used to meet at Amritsar at the time of Baisakhi and Diwali to take collective decisions known as ‘resolutions of the Guru (gurmatas)’.
  • A system called rakhi was introduced, offering protection to cultivators on the payment of a tax of 20 per cent of the produce.
  • Guru Gobind Singh had inspired the Khalsa with the belief that their destiny was to rule (raj karega khalsa).
  • The khalsa declared their sovereign rule by striking their own coin again in 1765.
  • This coin bore the same inscription as the one on the orders issued by the khalsa in the time of Banda Bahadur.
  • The Sikh territories in the late eighteenth century extended from the Indus to the Jamuna.
  • They were divided under different rulers.
  • One of them, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, reunited these groups.
  • He established his capital at Lahore in 1799.

Question 3.
What is/are Khalsa and Jatha or Misls?
Answer:
Small political groups of the Sikhs were called the Jathas or the Misls. Their total number before Ranjit Singh was 12. The section of soldiers formed by 10th Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 was called Khalsa.

Question 4.
Who took over as leader of the Sikhs after Guru Gobind Singhji?
Answer:
Banda Bahadur took over as leader of the Sikhs after Guru Gobind Singhji.

The Marathas

Question 1.
Give an account of the Maratha Kingdom.
Answer:

  • The Maratha Kingdom was another powerful regional kingdom.
  • It rose out of a sustained opposition to Mughal rule.
  • Shivaji (1627-1680) carved out a stable kingdom with the support of powerful warrior families (deshmukhs).
  • Groups of highly mobile, peasant pastoralists (kunbis) provided the backbones of the Maratha army.
  • Shivaji used these forces to challenge the Mughals in the Peninsula.
  • After Shivaji’s death, effective power in the Maratha state was wielded by a family of Chitpavan Brahmanas who served Shivaji’s successors as Peshwa (or principal minister).
  • Poong. became the capital of the Maratha kingdom.

Question 2.
How did Maratha become a force to reckon with?
Answer:

  • Under the Peshwas, the Marathas developed a very successful military organisation.
  • Their success lay in by-passing the fortified areas of the Mughals.
  • They raided cities and engaged Mughal armies in areas where their supply line and reinforcements could be easily disturbed.
  • Between 1720 and 1761, the Maratha empire expanded.
  • It gradually chipped away at the authority of the Mughal Empire.
  • Malwa and Gujarat were seized from the Mughals by ]the 1720s.
  • By the 1730s, the Maratha king was recognised as the overlord of the entire Deccan peninsula.
  • He possessed the right to levy chauth and sardeshmukhi in the entire region.
  • After raiding Delhi in 1737 the frontiers of Maratha domination expanded rapidly.
  • into Rajasthan.
  • into Punjab in the north.
  • into Bengal and Orissa in the east.
  • into Karnataka and the Tamil and Telugu countries in the south.
  • These were not formally included in the Maratha empire. They were made to pay tribute as a way of accepting Maratha sovereignty.
  • Expansion brought enormous resources but it came at a price.
  • These military campaigns also made other rulers hostile towards the Marathas. This resulted in the reduced support to the Marathas during the third battle of Panipat in 1761.

Question 3.
Who were the Peshwas, Deshmukhs and Kunbis?
Answer:
Peshwas were the principal minister who served as successors of Shivaji. They were the Chitpavan Brahmanas. Deshmukhs were the powerful warrior families and the Kunbis were the peasant pastoralists who were the backbones of Maratha Army.

Question 4.
What were Chauth and Sardeshmukhi?
Answer:
By 1730’s the Maratha king was recognized as the overlord of the Deccan peninsula and had the right to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi from there. Chauth was the 25% of the land revenue and Sardeshmukhi was 9-10% of the land revenue.

Question 5.
Give an account of administrative system of the Marathas.
Answer:

  • The Marathas developed an effective administrative system.
  • Revenue demands were gradually introduced taking local conditions into account.
  • Agriculture was encouraged.
  • Trade revived.
  • This allowed Maratha chiefs (Sardars) like Sindhia of Gwalior, Gaekwad of Baroda and Bhonsle of Nagpur the resources to raise powerful armies.
  • Maratha campaigns into Malwa in the 1720s did not challenge the growth and prosperity of the cities in the region.
  • Ujjain expanded under Sindhia’s patronage.
  • Indore under Holkar’s.
  • By all accounts these cities were large and prosperous and functioned as important commercial and cultural centres.
  • New trade routes emerged within the areas controlled by the Marathas.
  • The silk produced in the Chanderi region now found a new outlet in Poona, the Maratha capital.
  • Burhanpur which had earlier participated in the trade between Agra and Surat now expanded its . hinterland. It included
  • Poona and Nagpur in the south.
  • Lucknow and Allahabad in the east.

The Jats

Question 1.
How was Jat power established?
Answer:
The Jats consolidated their power during the late 17th and 18th century. Under the leadership of Churaman they acquired control over territories to the west of Delhi. By the 1680’s they dominated the region between Delhi and Agra. For some time they controlled the city of Agra.

Question 2.
Describe the rule of Jats.
Answer:

  • The Jats were prosperous agriculturists.
  • Panipat and Ballabhgarh became important trading centres under Churaman a jat who dominated Delhi and Agra.
  • Under Suraj Mai the kingdom of Bharatpur emerged as a strong state.
  • When Nadir Shah sacked Delhi in 1739, many of the city’s notables took refuge there.
  • His Son Jawahir Shah had 30,000 troops of his own and hired another 20,000 Maratha and 15,000 Sikh troops to fight the Mughals.
  • Bharatpur fort was built in a fairly traditional style.
  • At Dig the Jats built an elaborate garden palace combining styles seen at Amber and Agra.
  • Its buildings were modelled on architectural forms first associated with royalty

Multiple Choice Questions

Prelude

Question 1.
The British East India Company established its power after
(a) 1757
(b) 1761
(c) 1768
(d) 1771
Answer:
1757

The Crisis; of the Empire and the Later Mughals

Question 1.
Aurangzeb had depleted the military and financial resources by fighting a long war in the
(a) East India
(b) North India
(c) Deccan
(d) none of these
Answer:
Deccan

Question 2.
Aurangzeb died in the year
(a) 1700
(b) 1710
(c) 1725
(d) 1707
Answer:
1707

Question 3.
Ahmad Shah Abdali was the ruler of
(a) Afghan
(b) Iran
(c) Iraq
(d) none of these
Answer:
Afghan

Question 4.
Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded North India times between 1748 and 1761.
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 5
(d) 6
Answer:
5

Emergence of New States

Question 1.
During which century the Mughal Empire declined?
(a) 18th
(b) 16th
(c) 19th
(d) 21th
Answer:
18th

The old mughal provinces

Question 1.
Which of the following enjoyed the zat rank of 7000?
(a) Asaf Jah
(b) Murshil Quli Khan
(c) Both of these
(d) None of these
Answer:
Both of these

Hyderabad

Question 1.
Who were the Telugu warrior chiefs’?
(a) Nayakas
(b) Jathas
(c) Misl
(d) All of these
Answer:
Nayakas

Awadh

Question 1.
Who was the powerful governor of Bengal?
(a) Sa’adat Khan
(b) Murshid Quli Khan
(c) Asaf Jah
(d) Alivardi Khan
Answer:
Murshid Quli Khan

Bengal

Question 1.
During whose rule Jagat Seth became prosperous in Bengal?
(a) Murshil Quli
(b) Sa’adat Khan
(c) Alivardi Khan
(d) Asaf Jah
Answer:
Alivardi Khan

The Watan Jagirs of the Rajputs

Question 1.
Sawai Jai Singh founded his new capital here:
(a) Malwa
(b) Amber
(c) Jodhpur
(d) Jaipur
Answer:
Jaipur

Seizing Independence

The Sikhs

Question 1.
Dalkhalsa was set up in 1699 by
(a) Guru Nanak Singh
(b) Guru Tegh Bahadur
(c) Guru Gobind Singh
(d) Guru Har Kishan
Answer:
Guru Gobind Singh

Question 2.
Small political groups of the Sikhs were called
(a) Khalsa
(b) Misls
(c) Dalkhalsa
(d) none of these
Answer:
Misls

The Marathas

Question 1.
Chauth was the of the land revenue.
(a) 10%
(6) 20%
(c) 25%
(d) 30%
Answer:
25%

Question 2.
Who was the founder of Maratha empire? .
(a) Shivaji
(b) Tipu Sultan
(c) Raja Jai Singh
(d) None of these
Answer:
Shivaji

Question 3.
Shivaji adopted the title of Chhatrapati in
(a) 1701
(6) 1760
(c) 1752
(d) 1762
Answer:
1762

Question 4.
Tax levied by Marathas was called
(a) zat
(b) sardeshmukhi
(c) umara
(d) none of these
Answer:
sardeshmukhi

The Jats

Question 1.
Under whose leadership Bharatpur emerged as a strong Jat State?
(a) Churaman
(b) Suraj Mai
(c) Jawahir Shah
(d) Nadir Shah
Answer:
Suraj Mai

Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
1. Third battle of Panipat (1761) was fought between Marathas and …………………..
2. Ruler of Iran ………………… plundered the city of Delhi in 1739.
3. Mughal nobles were divided in two factions, the ……………….. and the ………………………..
4. Revenue in Bengal was collected in …………………
5. Chief Minister of Marathas was called ……………………
6. System of rakhi offered protection to cultivators on payment of a tax of ……………….of produce

Question 2.
State whether the given statements are true or false:
1. Nobles appointed as Governors by the Mughals had no control over Diwani and Faujdari.
2. Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded north India 5 times between 1748-1761.
3. Banking house of Jagat Seth became extremely prosperous during the rule of Murshid Quli Khan.
4. Khalsa was instituted in 1699.
5. Ranjit Singh was an important leader of Marathas.
6. Jats consolidated their power under the leadership of Churaman.
Answer:
1. False
2. True
3. False
4. True
5. False
6. True.

Question 3.
Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B:
Eighteenth-Century Political Formations Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 10 - 1
Answer:
1. (d)
2. (e)
3. (a)
4. (f)
5. (b)
6. (c).

Extra Questions for Class 7 Social Science

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