Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences

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Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 NCERT Textbook Questions Solved

1. Choose the right answers of the followings from the given options:

Question 1.(i)
Which one of the following is the main reason for male migration in India?
(a) Education
(b) Business
(c) Work and employment
(d) Marriage
Answer:
(c) Work and employment

Question 1.(ii)
Which one of the following states receives maximum number of immigrants?
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Delhi
(c) Maharashtra
(d) Bihar
Answer:
(c) Maharashtra

Question 1.(iii)
Which one of the following streams is dominated by male migrants in India?
(a) Rural-rural
(b) Urban-rural
(c) Rural-urban
(d) Urban-Urban
Answer:
(c) Rural-urban

Question 1.(iv)
Which one of the following urban agglomeration has the highest share in migrant population?
(a) Mumbai UA
(b) Delhi UA
(c) Bangalore UA
(d) Chennai UA
Answer:
(a) Mumbai UA

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:

Question 2.(i)
Differentiate between life-time migrant and migrant by last residence.
Answer:
According to the census of India migration is enumerated on two bases:
(i) Place of birth (life-time migrant).
(ii) Place of residence (migrant by place of last residence)

Question 2.(ii)
Identify the main reason for male/ female selective migration.
Answer:
Work and employment have remained the main cause for male migration. It constitutes 38% of total male migration. 3% of the male population migrates due to business, 6% due to education, 2% because of marriage, 10% male population is migrant by birth, 25% male population has migrated with households whereas 16% of male population migrated due to other reasons. The male migration due to marriage is concentrated in Meghalaya where matriarchy is prevalent.

Question 2.(iii)
What is the impact of rural-urban migration on the age and sex structure on the place of origin and destination?
Answer:
Migiation leads to redistribution of population within a country. Rural-urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from rural areas have adverse effect on rural demographic structure. High out migration results in serious imbalance in age sex composition. Male population within the working age group migrate out of rural areas leaving females, children and old aged people, which increases the share of dependent population in rural areas. The situation is especially difficult for females because they have to look after both domestic and economic work in the villages, leading to higher participation of women in agriculture without decrease in their household workload. Also it leads to loss of human resource from the rural areas, leaving them with unskilled people thus reducing the total productivity and hence hampering the development of rural areas. Urban areas receive heavy in migration of working age male population, causing sex ratio to be highly unfavorable for females, which gives rise to crimes against women and increases their vulnerability.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:

Question 3.(i)
Discuss the consequences of international migration in India.
Answer:
Indian census 2001 has recorded that more than 5 million persons have migrated to India from other countries. As far as emigration from India is concerned it is estimated that there are around 20 million people of Indian diaspora across 110 countries.

Emigration: A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange. Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive veiy significant amount from their international migrants. If remittances are the major benefits of migration from the point of view of the source region, the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost. Consequently, the existing underdevelopment in the source region gets reinforced.

When people move from one country to another they act as agents of social change, they carry the ideas related to new technology, etc. Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite global culture and widens up mental horizon of people. On the other hand when people move out of their own countries to other countries due to differing social and cultural values, they feel alienated and leads a loss of identity and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.

Immigration: The heavy influx of migrants from neighbouring countries, mostly being illegal gives rise to many socio-economic problems. They lead to increase in population, which causes overcrowding, development of unregulated colonies and slums. Also it leads to increase in pressure on infrastructure, which is unable to cope with increasing population, increased unemployment, pressure on government exchequers on social security schemes leads to over exploitation of resources. It also leads to increase in crime rates, especially against women as most of the migrants are male which disturbs the age-sex ratio of recipient cities in India. It also leads to tensions between immigrants and native inhabitants,

Question 3.(ii)
What are social-demographic consequences of migration?
Answer:
Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and better safety. Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.

Demographic Consequences: Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure creating serious imbalances in age and sex composition. Male population within the working age group migrate out of rural areas leaving females, children and old aged people, which increases the share of dependent population in rural areas. Urban areas receive heavy in migration of working age male population, causing sex ratio to be highly unfavorable for females.

Social Consequences: Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc., get diffused from urban to rural areas through them.

Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and it widens up the mental horizon of the people at large. But it also has serious negative consequences – anonymity, creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection lead people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse. Also it may lead to loss of identities among the emigrants. Due to heavy male out migration from rural areas, situation for females becomes especially difficult because they have to look after both domestic and economic work in the villages, leading to higher participation of women in agriculture without decrease in their household workload. Migration of women either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy.

Urban areas receive heavy in migration of working age male population, causing sex ratio to be highly unfavourable for females, which gives rise to crimes against women and increases their vulnerability. Unemployment leads to increase in crime rate in the urban areas.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 NCERT Extra Questions

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define “Indian Diaspora’.
Answer:
The Indian Diaspora is a generic term to describe the people who migrated from territories that are currently within the borders of the Republic of India. It also refers to their descendants.

Question 2.
Give one state each with dominating push 8s pull factors.
Answer:
Push factor dominated state-Uttar Pradesh, Bihar. Pull factor dominated state-Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana.

Question 3.
How do we determine whether a person is migrant?
Answer:
When the place of birth of a person and place, of residence is different, he is said to be migrant.

Question 4.
Name the regions from which early migrants came to India in early history.
Answer:
West and Central Asia and South¬East Asia.

Question 5.
Name few countries where the Indian migrants settled over a period of time.
Answer:

  • Mauritius, Caribbean Islands, Fiji, South Africa under the Girmit Act.
  • Thailand,Malaysia,Singapore,Indonesia, Brunei and African countries.
  • USA, Canada, UK,Australia, NewZealand and Germany.

Question 6.
Name any four components of migration recorded in the census of India.
Answer:

  • Place of birth
  • Duration of residence at place of enumeration
  • Place of last residence
  • Reasons for migration

Question 7.
Why is the male migration higher from rural to urban?
Answer:
Male migration is higher from rural to urban for search of job opportunities to provide better standards of living to family.

Question 8.
Name the countries from where people have migrated to India.
Answer:

  • Census 2001 recorded that more than 5 million people have migrated to India from other countries. Out of these 96 per cent came from neighboring countries: Bangladesh, (3.0 million) and Nepal (0.5 million).
  • Refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Myanmar.

Question 9.
Name the state having largest number of in-migrants and out-migrants?
Answer:

  • In-migrants: Maharashtra
  • Out-migrants: Uttar Pradesh

Question 10.
Explain the main cause of rural to rural migration and rural to urban migration.
Answer:
In 2001, rural to rural migration was the highest amongst women and it was due to marriage. On the other hand, rural to urban migration was recorded highest amongst males and it was for work and employment.

Question 11.
Name emigrant and immigrant states of India.
Answer:
Maximum number of people migrate to other places from Uttar Pradesh and then secondly from Bihar. Some states like Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana attract migrants from other states such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, etc. Maharashtra occupied first place in the list with 2.3 million net in-migrants, followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. Among the urban agglomeration (UA), Greater Mumbai received the highest number of in-migrants. Intra-states migration constituted the largest share in it.

Question 12.
People are emotionally attached to their birthplaces still they leave them. Why?
Answer:
Because of push factors people leave their birth and native places which are emotionally attached to them. Lack of basic infrastructural facilities, health and education apart from these, natural calamities like floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunami, war, etc. give extra pressure or push to migrate from a place.

Question 13.
Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse culture. Clarify.
Answer:
Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse culture and it results in evolution of a composite culture. When some people come from a developed region to under-developed region, he brings with him a developed thinking and new technology. Similarly, girls education has become important as a result of migration.

Question 14.
Explain the problems that arise in urban areas due to migration.
Answer:
Due to migration to urban-areas problems of slums, dirty colonies, and overcrowding take place. Due to excessive exploitation of natural resources, land degradation, air and water pollution, sewage problems, etc. arise.

Question 15.
Explain the demographic problems which arise due to migration.
Answer:
Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural/ urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure. States of out migrants face problems of lack of skilful youth and increased number of dependent persons. Migration has brought serious imbalances in the age and sex composition in the emigrating states. Similar imbalances are also brought in the recipient states

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Short Answer Type Questions.

Question 1.
Define migration. What are the bases of enumeration?
Answer:3
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another in search of better opportunities with an intention to settle. In the Census of India migration is enumerated on two bases:

  • Place of birth: If the place of birth is different from the place of enumeration (known as life-time migrant);
  • Place of residence: If the place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration (known as migrant by place of last residence).

Question 2.
What are the causes of migration?
Answer:
People leave their place of birth and residence for better opportunities in order to settle with or without family. The reason for movement can be categorized into two factors: Push factors and Pull factors. Push factor force the people to leave their place of origin while the pull factors attract people from different places to settle there. Pull factors are dominant in place of destination while push factors are dominant in place of origin.

Question 3.
Write a note on spatial migration within India.
Answer:
In India there is a wide spatial variation in migration. Some states like Maharashtra, Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana attract migrants from other states such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, etc. Maharashtra occupied first place in the list with 2.3 million net in migrants, followed by Delhi, Gujarat and Haryana. On the other hand, Uttar Pradesh (-2.6 million) and Bihar (-1.7 million) were the states, which had the largest number of net out-migrants from the state.

Among the urban agglomeration (UA), Greater Mumbai received the higher number of in migrants. Intra-states migration constituted the largest share in it. These differences are largely due to the size of the state in which these urban agglomeration are located.

Question 4.
What are the streams of migration? Why is it important?
Answer:
Migration can be permanent, temporary or seasonal. There are generally four streams of migration.

  • Rural to rural
  • Rural to urban
  • Urban to rural
  • Urban to urban

Migration is important because it is a spontaneous effort to attain a better balance between resources and population. There are push and pull factors working together behind migration.

Question 5.
Statistics were collected on migration since first survey but many modifications have been introduced since then. Explain.
Answer:
Actually migration was recorded from the very beginning of the first Census of India conducted in 1881. The data were recorded on the basis of place of birth. However, there have been many modifications since then.

  • The first major modification was introduced in 1961 Census by bringing in two additional components viz place of birth, i.e. village or town and duration of residence (if born else where).
  • Further in 1971, additional information on place of last residence and duration of stay at the place of enumeration were incorporated.
  • Information on reasons for migration were incorporated in 1981 Census and modified in consecutive Censuses.

Question 6.
Which urban agglomeration of India has the highest share of migrant population? Why?
Answer:
Greater Mumbai has the highest share of migrant population. It is due to following reasons:

  • More employment opportunities.
  • Urbanization and industrialization.
  • Relatively higher wages.
  • Better educational facilities.
  • Other civic amenities.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why do people migrate?
OR
Explain the factors behind migration.
Answer:
People migrate to places different from their origin for a variety of reasons.
Push factors: Those factors which make the place of origin seem less attractive are called push factors. The factors of unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and social-economic backwardness.

Pull factors: Those factors which make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin are called pull factors. The place of destination provides better job opportunities and living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.

The reason for migration of males and females are different. For example, work and employment have remained the main cause for male migration (38 per cent) while it is only three per cent for the females. Contrary to this, about 65 per cent of females move out from their parental houses following their marriage. This is the most important cause in the rural areas of India except in Meghalaya where reverse is the case. In comparison to these marriage migration of the male, is only 2 per cent in the country.

Question 2.
What are the consequences of migration?
Answer:
Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and better safety. Consequently it can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.

Economic Consequences: A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange. Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants. The amount of remittance sent by the internal migrants is very meagre as compared to international
migrants, but it plays an important role in the growth of economy of the source area. Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses, etc. Unregulated migration to the metropolitan cities of India has caused overcrowding.

Development of slums in industrially developed states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Delhi is a negative consequence of unregulated migration within the country. Demographic Consequences: Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a countiy. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure leading to serious imbalances in age and sex composition.

Social Consequences: Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them. Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. It widens up the mental horizon of the people. But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonimity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.
Environmental Consequences: Over crowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas. This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums shanty colonies. Due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing the acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.

Others: Migration (even excluding the marriage migration) affects the status of women directly or indirectly. In the rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women. Migration of ‘women’ either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy but also increases their vulnerability.

If remittances are the major benefits of migration from the point of view of the source region, the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost. The market for advanced skills has become truly a global market and the most dynamic industrial economies are admitting and recruiting significant proportions of the highly trained professionals from poor regions. Consequently, the existing underdevelopment in the source region gets reinforced.

Question 3.
What description is found in Indian diaspora? What are its implications?
Answer:

  • First wave: During colonial period, millions of the indentured labourers were sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands, Fiji and South Africa by British from U.P. and Bihar to work as plantation workers. All such migrations were covered under the time bound contract known as Girmit Act (Indian Migration Act). The living conditions of these labourers were not better than the slaves.
  • Second wave: The millions of profess -ionals, artisans, traders and factory workers in search of economic opportunities migrated to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei and African countries. It led to steady outflow of India’s skilled and semi-skilled labourers in the wake of oil-boom in West Asia in 1970s. There was also some outflow of entrepreneurs, store owners, professionals and businessmen to Western countries.
  • Third wave: It comprises professionals like doctors, engineers, software engineers, management consultant, financial experts, media persons to countries such as the USA Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Germany. These professionals enjoy distinction of being highly educated and the highest earning and prospering groups.

Implications:

  • Brain-drain: The highly qualified and skilled people are moving out of the country leaving unskilled and illiterate stuff for domestic economy. It has created scarcity of qualified manpower.
  • Indian diaspora is playing an important role in the development of the countries of destination.

Question 4.
What are economic consequences of migration?
Answer:
Economic Consequences:

  • A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange.
  • In 2002, India received US$ 11 billion as remittances from international migrants.
  • Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants.
  • The amount of remittances sent by the internal migrants is very meagre in comparison to international migrants. But it plays an important role in the growth of economy of the source area. Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses, etc.
  • For thousands of the poor villages of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, etc. remittance works as life blood for their economy.
  • Migration from rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha to the rural areas of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh accounted for the success of their green revolution strategy for agricultural development.
  • Apart from this, unregulated migration to the metropolitan cities of India has caused overcrowding. Development of slums in industrially developed states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Delhi is a negative consequence of unregulated migration within the country.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Graph Based Questions

Question 1.
Compare fig. 2.1 a & b – (page 17) and find out the variation in the rate of migration streams – both intra-state & inter-state.
Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 Migration Types, Causes and Consequences Graph Based Questions Q1
Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 Migration Types, Causes and Consequences Graph Based Questions Q1.1
Answer:
The migration can be classified into two types: internal migration (within the country) and external migration (between the countries). Under the internal migration there are four streams,

  • rural to rural (R-R)
  • rural to urban (R-U)
  • urban to urban (U-U) and
  • urban to rural (U-R).

In India, during 2001, out of 315 million migrants, enumerated on the basis of the last residence, 98 million had changed their place of residence in the last ten years. Out of these, 81 million were intra-state migrants. The stream was dominated by female migrants. Most of these were migrants related to marriage. The distribution of male and female migrants in different streams of intra-state and inter-state migration is presented in Fig. 2.1 (a) and 2.1 (b). It is clearly evident that female predominate the streams of short distance rural to rural migration in both types of migration. Contrary to this, men predominate the rural to urban stream of inter-state migration due to economic reasons.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Differentiates

Question 1.
Differentiate between temporary and permanent migrations.

Permanent Migration Temporary Migration
When people migrate to another place for a long time or for life time, it is called permanent migration. When people migrate to another place for at least one year or seasonally, it is called temporary migration.

Question 2.
Differentiate between intra-state & inter-state migrations.

Intra-state Migration Inter-state Migration
(i) This type of migration remains within the boundaries of the state. (i) In it, people migrate from one state to another
(ii) People may migrate from one district to another or one village to another. (ii) Migration is comparatively low because large scale of migrants decline to move because of increasing distance.
(iii) Majority of them are the female migrants due to marriage. (iii) The main reason is employment, and economic activities. Majority of them are the male migrants.

Question 3.
Differentiate between push factors and pull factors of migration.

Push factors Pull factors
(i) Those factors which make the place of origin seem less attractive are called push factors. (i) Those factors which make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin are called pull factors.
(ii) The factor s of unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and social-economic backwardness. (ii) The place of destination provides better job opportunities and living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Map Based Questions

Question 1.
Locate and label the following on the given political map of with appropriate symbols.
(i) Out migration states
(ii) In migration states
Answer:
(i) Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
(ii) Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 Migration Types, Causes and Consequences Map Based Questions Q1

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Important Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Name the process of migration from the plain areas to pastures on mountains during summers and again from mountain pastures to plain areas during winter (CBSE 2010)
Answer:
Transhumance.

Question 2.
In which stream of migration is the number of intra-state migrants the largest in India? (Foreign 2010)
Answer:
Rural to rural.

Question 3.
Name the ‘urban agglomeration’ having the highest share of immigrant population. (A.I. 2014)
Answer:
Greater Mumbai has the highest share of immigrant population in India.

Question 4.
Why do people migrate in large number from rural to urban areas in India? (A.I. 2016)
Answer:
In India people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on the land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc.

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What is migration? Explain any four factors responsible for the migration of people in India. (CBSE 2010)
Answer:
Migration is an instance of moving to live in another place.
Four factors responsible for the migration of people in India:

  • Availability of regular work and relatively higher wages.
  • High population pressure on the land.
  • Natural disasters like, drought, earth¬quake, wars, etc.
  • Better opportunities for education, better health facilities and sources of entertainment

Question 2.
Explain the causes of migration of unskilled migrants from rural to urban areas in India and their sufferings. (CBSE 2015)
Answer:
The causes of migration of unskilled migrants from rural to urban areas in India and their sufferings are:

  • Due to poverty
  • High population pressure on the land.
  • Lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc.
  • Availability of regular work and relatively higher wages in urban centers.

Their sufferings:

  • Absence of family members and children causes anxieties.
  • Humiliation

Long Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
How is migration a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over a space? Explain the economic consequences of migration in India. (A.I. 2017, CBSE 2018)
Answer:
Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space

  • People move from place of low opportunity and low safety. This, in turn, creates both benefits and problems for the areas, people migrate from and migrate to.
  • Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.

Economic Consequences:

  • A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants.
  • Remittances from international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange.
  • Punjab, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu receive a very significant amount from their international migrants.
  • The amount of remittances sent by the internal migrants is very meager as compared to international migrants
  • Internal Migrants play an important role in the growth of the economy of the source area.
    (Any three points to be explained)

Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions

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