Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 Changing Cultural Traditions
- Many significant changes took place in cultural traditions of Europe between 14th to 17th centuries.
- The church mainly influenced the life of people a lot. ‘
- Renaissance is a French word.
- Fall of feudalism, the religious wars between Christians and Muslims, commercial properties, etc. were the main reasons for the rise of Renaissance in Europe.
- Renaissance at first started in Italy. Then it started in Rome, Venice and Florence.
- In 1455, printing press was invented by Gutenberg.
- First printing press was set up by Caxton in 1477 in Europe.
- The invention of printing press increased the volume of books. It also helped in the spread of education.
- Milan, Naples, Venice and Florence gained the status of trade centers because of flourishing of trades.
- Humanism was one of the movements that started in Italy in 14th century.
- Petrarch is known as the ‘Father of Humanism’. He vehemently criticized the superstitions and lifestyle of clergy.
- Dante was an eminent poet and philosopher of Italy.
- Dante is known for his classics, The Divine Comedy.
- William Tyndale (1494-1536) translated the Bible into English in 1506.
- Boccaccio was the greatest writer and humanist.
- Decameron is a classic work of Giovanni Boccaccio. It is the collection of 180 stories.
- Leonardo-da-Vinci was one of the greatest painters. He was born in Florence in the year 1452.
- Mona Lisa’ and ‘The Last Supper’ were the most famous paintings of Leonardo-da-Vinci.
- Michelangelo was another great painter. His greatest painting was ‘The Last Judgement’.
- Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Issac Newton were well-known scientists of the Renaissance period.
- The theory of the earth as a part of the sun centered system was made popular by Kepler’s Cosmographical Mystery.
- The revolution in science reached at its climax with Newton’s theory of gravitation.
- Aristocratic families dominated the way of life during 14th century medieval Europe.
- Social, political and economic life of people were deeply affected by Renaissance.
- Renaissance aroused the spirit of equality among the people and attacked on the superstitions and rituals prevailing in the society.
- Literature of Renaissance period brought about a great change in political thinking of the people.
- Reformation movement was a protest movement that took place in the 16th century against the church and the pope.
- Martin Luther wrote Ninety-Five Theses challenging the authority of the church.
- Nation-state received new power and vigour from Reformation.
- The Society of Jesus was founded by Ignatius Loyala in 1540. It made an attempt to combat Protestantism.
- Renaissance: A French word meaning rebirth.
- Renaissance man: A person with many interests and skills.
- Document of Indulgences: A document issued by the church which guaranteed a written promise to absolve the holder of all his sins.
- Humanism: A movement which gave priority to present life rather than life thereafter.
|The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries|
|1300||Humanism taught at Padua University in Italy|
|1341||Petrarch given title of ‘Poet Laureate’ in Rome|
|1349||University established in Florence|
|1390||Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales published|
|1436||Brunelleschi designs the Duomo in Florence|
|1453||Ottoman Turks defeat the Byzantine ruler of Constantinople|
|1454||Gutenberg prints the Bible with movable type|
|1484||Portuguese mathematicians calculate latitude by observing the sun|
|1492||Columbus reaches America|
|1495||Leonardo da Vinci paints The Last Supper|
|1512||Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling|
|The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries|
|1516||Thomas More’s Utopia published|
|1517||Martin Luther writes the Ninety-Five Theses|
|1522||Luther translates the Bible into German|
|1525||Peasant uprising in Germany|
|1543||Andreas Vesalius writes On Anatomy|
|1559||Anglican Church established in England, with the king/queen as its head|
|1569||Gerhardus Mercator prepares cylindrical map of the earth|
|1582||Gregorian calendar introduced by Pope Gregory XIII|
|1628||William Harvey links the heart with blood circulation|
|1673||Academy of Sciences set up in Paris|
|1687||Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica published|