Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 5 Children and Sports

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Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 5 Children and Sports is part of Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions. Here we have given Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 5 Children and Sports.

Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 5 Children and Sports

1 Mark Questions

Question 1.
Define motor development.
Answer:
It refers to the development of movement and various motor abilities from birth till death.

Question 2.
What are the types of motor skills?
Answer:
There are two types of motor skills

  • Gross motor skills
  • Fine motor skills

Question 4.
List three advantages of maintaining’ a correct posture.
OR
What are the advantages of correct posture? CBSE 2013
Answer:
Three advantages of maintaining a correct posture are

  • Increases flexibility.
  • Improves physical appearance.
  • More energy.

Question 3.
How many stages of motor development are there in children?
OR
Name the motor development stages in
Answer:
There are four stages of motor development in children as given below
Infanthood → Early childhood → Middle childhood → Later childhood

Question 5.
Write two benefits of regular exercise.
Answer:
Benefits of regular exercise are

  • Improves blood circulation, which reduces the risk of heart diseases.
  • Prevents bone loss.

Question 6.
What are the causes of knock knee?
Answer:
The causes of knock knee are

  1. Weakness of muscles and ligaments
  2. Overweight body
  3. Lack of balanced diet
  4. Lack of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus

Question 7.
State the common postural deformities. (All India 2017)
Answer:
Common postural deformities are Kyphosis, Flat foot. Knock knee, Lordosis and Bowlegs.

3 Marks Questions

Question 8.
Describe the types of motor skills.
Answer:
There are two types of motor skills

  1. Gross Motor Skills It refers to the use of larger muscles of the skeleton to maintain posture and balance for activities like throwing, walking, running etc.
  2. Fine Motor Skills It refers to the use of smaller muscles of the hands, feet and face like speaking, writing etc.

Question 9.
Explain the developmental characteristics during infancy. (CBSE 2013)
OR
What types of body movements does an infant start in the early stages of life?
Answer:
The developmental characteristics are as follows/Some of the body movements started by the infant are

  • Extends arm in front of eyes on the side to which the head is turned, other arm flexed.
  • Lifts one foot after another in stepping response.
  • Spontaneous grasp of adult’s finger.
  • Rolls from side to back.
  • Crawls.
  • Stands and walks alone.

Question 10.
Enlist the basic movements of early childhood in a bahy.
Answer:
This period is also known as preschool years age and the movements during this period are

  • Ball handling.
  • Fine eye-hand coordination.
  • Walking leads to running, jumping, hopping, galloping and skipping.
  • Skipping, kicking and balance mechanism.
  • A full kick and backswing.

Question 11.
Can endurance influence motor development of children?
Answer:
Yes, endurance influences motor development of children. Endurance is the ability to maintain the exertion required for an activity. A child with poor endurance might be able to step up one stair but not climb a flight of stairs. Endurance involves many factors such as muscle tone and strength, heart and lung function and motivation.

Question 12.
Write about the deformities of spinal curvature. All India 2016
Answer:
There are three types of spinal curvature

  1. Lordosis It is the inward curvature of the spine or a deformity of spinal curvature. It is an increased forward curve in the lumbar region. It creates problems in standing and walking.
  2. Kyphosis It is a deformity of the spinal curvature in which there is an increase of exaggeration of a backward curve or a decrease of a forward curve. It is also called round upper back.
  3. Scoliosis It is a postural deformity of spinal curvature in which there is one large lateral curve extending through the whole length of the spine, or there may be two curves. This type of deformity is also called curve.

Question 13.
What is correct posture of sitting?
OR
Explain correct sitting posture? Delhi 2015
Answer:
In this posture, parts of the body, head, shoulder and hip should be placed in proper alignment with each other.
The weight of the person sitting should be supported over a large area, so as to equally distribute the pressure. The backbone should be erect with the upper region of the backbone straight against the back of the chair.

Question 14.
Explain the disadvantages of unsupervised weight training.
Answer:

  1. Risk of Injury Serious injuries have come from situations with home gym equipment when there was no supervision and the children playing around or challenging one another. Playing in unsupervised situations or youths attempting to do a maximum lift before they are physically developed have the risk of injuries. Injuries include muscle strains and tears, bone fractures, growth plate injuries and cartilage damage.
  2. Less Flexibility Another disadvantage is the risk of non-flexibility. This happens when proper exercises to increase flexibility are not done along with weight training. If weight training is combined with flexibility exercises then this problem will not occur.

Question 15.
Suggest exercises as corrective measures for round shoulders. Delhi 2014 ‘
Answer:
Round shoulder is a postural deformity in which the shoulders become round as they are drawn forward, the head is extended and the chin points forward.
The corrective measures are,

  1. Stand in correct posture.
  2. Keep the finger tips on your shoulders and encircle your elbows in clockwise and anticlockwise direction.
  3. Perform Chakrasana and Dhanurasana for some time.
  4. Hold the horizontal bar for some time.

5 Marks Questions

Question 16.
Define motor development during childhood. (CBSE 2012,14)
OR
Explain developmental characteristics during childhood. ’
Answer:
The period of childhood is marked by four stages i.e. infanthood, early, middle and later childhood. Each child has to pass through all these stages. These are explained as follows,
1. Infanthood (0-2 years)

  • Hand-eye coordination.
  • Lifting, rolling, crawling
  • Standing and walking,

2. Early childhood (2-6 years)

  • Basic locomotor
  • Fine eye-hand coordination
  • Running, jumping, kicking

3. Middle childhood (6-12 years)

  • Fine motor skills
  • Very good eye-hand coordination
  • Variety of movements
  • Balance and coordination

4. Later childhood (12 years above)

  • Onset of puberty
  • Girls taller and heavier than boys
  • Developing strength

Question 17.
Define motor development? Discuss in detail the factors that affect motor development in children.
Answer:
Motor development refers to the development of general body control, fine motor skills and large muscle movements. The development and quality of a child’s motor skills are influenced by many factors

  1. Tone It refers to the ongoing contraction and state of the muscle at rest. Tone can be normal, hypotonic or hypertonic.
  2. Strength It refers to the force of a muscle contraction purposefully exerted against resistance to carry out an activity. For example, a child with weak leg muscles might have trouble in standing or stepping up or down the staircase.
  3. Endurance This is the ability to maintain the exertion required for an activity.
    Endurance involves many factors such as muscle tone and strength, heart and lung function and motivation.
  4. Balance This is the delicate interaction of equilibrium centres in the brain with sensory input. Sensory input includes vision, body position, awareness and muscle strength and tone. All these factors work together to allow a child to maintain an upright posture and to move between positions needed for activities such as sitting, crawling, walking and reaching.
  5. Motor Planning It is the complex and often intuitive ability to know how to carry out the steps needed to complete a physical activity. Motor planning requires the coordination of the systems that regulate perception, sequencing, speed and intensity of movements.
  6. Sensory Integration It is the ability to accurately interpret sensory input from the environment and to produce an appropriate motor response.

Question 18.
Explain the weight training as one of the oldest methods for development of strength. Describe its advantages and disadvantages. (All Indio 2017)
OR
Weight training is one of the oldest methods for development of strength.
What are its advantages and disadvantages? (All Indio 2015)
Answer:
Weight training refers to the physical exercise that involves lifting weights to improve the performance of the muscles.
The advantages of weight training are as follows

  1. Improves Muscle Strength and Endurance It tones up the muscles and joints and prevents them from injuries. It also helps children to maintain flexibility and balance weight management.
  2. Builds Physical Fitness Weight training provides a good shape to the body and enhances physical fitness.
  3. Improves Sports Performance It enhances athletic performance by developing strength and fitness.

The disadvantages of weight training are as follows

  1. Risk of Injury Weight training not performed under supervision or by children, youths who put in severe effort may cause serious injuries. Thus, to perform weight training with a companion or a supporter is always advisable or to perform under the supervision of an expert to avoid the worst to happen.
  2. Less Flexibility It reduces the flexibility of the body if only weight training is done. Therefore, exercises to increase flexibility should also be done.

Question 19.
What do you mean by correct posture? Explain the standing and sitting posture. What are the causes of bad posture? (CBSE 2012)
Answer:
Correct posture is one in which the body is so balanced as to produce least fatigue. It means that correct posture is the position of the body held without any sense of effort. The body weight should be equally distributed over both the legs and feet so as to produce least fatigue. Correct posture may also be defined as that assumed position which enables the body to perform or function effectively.

  1. Correct Posture of Standing In standing position, both the heels of the feet should meet each other. The whole body should be erect, knees straight, chin inside, chest forward, belly backward and pressed inside with equal body weight on both feet. In this position, the complete body should be balanced.
  2. Correct Posture of Sitting When we sit in a chair, our hips should be in a straight line and erect. Legs should touch the ground and should not be in hanging position. Thighs should be in horizontal position. The backbone should be erect with the upper region of the backbone straight against the back of the chair.

While we read, the book should be on the table but the book should not be too away or too near the eyes. The approximate distance between book and eyes should be at least 30 cms. For writing, a table with slight inclination towards the outside is appropriate. Causes of Bad Posture Poor posture is the posture that results from certain muscles tightening up or shortening.

There are different factors which can impact on posture. Some common causes for bad posture are given below

  • Pain or past injuries
  • Low nutrition
  • Hereditary reasons
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Habit
  • Type of job
  • Lifestyle and fashion

Question 20.
Mention the causes, precautions and corrective measures of knock knees. (CBSE 2012)
Answer:
Causes

  • Weakness of muscles and ligaments.
  • Lack of balanced diet.
  • Lack of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus.
  • Overweight body.

Precautions

  • Balanced diet should be taken.
  • Do not force the babies to walk at early age.

Corrective Measures

  • Horse riding is to be done regularly.
  • Keep a pillow between your knees whenever possible.
  • Perform Padniasana and Gomukhasana.
  • Take nutritious meals.

Question 21.
Explain any five common postural deformities.
Answer:
Five common postural deformities are:

  • Knock Knee It is a postural deformity in which both the knees touch Or overlap each other in normal standing position.
  • Flat Foot It is a deformity of the feet. In this deformity/there is no arch in the foot and the foot is completely flat.
  • Round Shoulder It is a postural deformity
  • Kyphosis It is a deformity of the spinal curvature in which there is an increase or exaggeration of a backward curve.
  • Bow Legs It is a deformity opposite to knock knee, in fact, if. there is a wide gap between the knees, the deformity can be observed easily when an individual walks or runs.

Question 22.
Suggest at what age children should be exposed to weight training. Justify your answer.
Answer:
Children may be exposed to weight training not earlier than 12 years, as development of gross and fine motor skills occurs till this age and weight training should be started only after the motor skills are fully developed.

Even after 12 years age, weight training.by adolescents must be supervised by an experienced coach, as the children must learn the correct techniques and procedures, as many injuries occur when children compete with one another in lifting more weight. Recent research has indicated that adolescents can gain strength by weight training.

Value Based Questions

Question 23.
Neeti along with her’father was regular at district park in early morning. She realised that most of the children are obese. She along with her few classmates wanted to help those children. She discussed with her physical education teacher and the Principal of the school. School decided to organise awareness rally for the neighbourhood. Delhi 2015 •
(i) How obesity can be prevented? Giveen two ways.
(ii) Give any two disadvantages of obesity.
(iii) What values are shown by Neeti and her classmates?
Answer:

  1. Obesity can be prevented by following a healthy diet and being physically active.
  2. Disadvantages of obesity are:
    • Health Hazards Obese people are most vulnerable to a great number of disease and bodily malfunctions which result from the accumulation of excess body fat.
    • Personality Related Problems An obese person generally suffers from psychological factors associated with abnormal body movement, lack of concentration,-tiredness and sloppy attitude toward physical exercise and work;.lack of energy and initiative etc.
  3. Values shown by Neeti and her classmates are concern for others’ health; understanding and self-disciplined.

Question 24.
How participation in physical activities enhances self-esteem among children? All India 2016
Answer:
Exercise has been shown to have a positive influence on a child’s perception of itself providing a sense of accomplishment as a child masters the skills, improves its body image and its’self-worth. This means being able to acknowledge our strengths and weakness and at the same time recognise that we are worthy and worthwhile.

1 Mark Questions
Question.1. Define motor development.
Answer. It refers to the development of general body control, fine motor skills and large muscle movements.

Question.2. How many stages of motor development are there in children?
Answer. There are three stages of motor development in children as given below:
infancy or infancyood —> early childhood —> later childhood

Question.3. What are the types of motor skills?
Answer. There are two types of motor skills:

  1. Gross motor skills
  2.  Fine motor skills

Question.4. Write two benefits of regular exercise.
Answer. Benefits of regular exercise are:

  1. Improves blood circulation, which reduces the risk of heart diseases.
  2. Improves physical wellness.

Question.5. Enlist a few disadvantages of food supplements.
Answer. Some disadvantages of food supplements are:

  1. liver damage
  2. blurred vision
  3. headache
  4.  bone pain
  5.  swelling, drowsiness and nausea

3 Marks Questions
Question.6. What types of body movements does an infant start in the early stages of life?
Answer. Some of the body movements started by the infant are :

  1. Arm extended in front of eyes on the side to which the head is turned, other arm flexed.
  2.  Lifts one foot after another in stepping response.
  3.  Spontaneous grasp of adult’s finger.
  4.  Lifts self by arms when prone.
  5. Rolls from side to back.
  6.  Crawls.

Question.7. Enlist the basic movements of early childhood in a baby.
Answer. This period is also known as preschool age and the movements during this period are :

  1.  Ball handling.
  2.  Fine eye-hand coordination.
  3.  Walking leading to running.
  4. Good control over running.
  5. Climbing proficiency using ladders.

Question.8. Can endurance influence motor development of children?
Answer. Yes, endurance influences motor development of children. Endurance is the ability to maintain the exertion required for an activity. A child with poor endurance might be able to step up one stair but not climb a flight of stairs. Endurance involves many factors such as muscle tone and strength, heart and lung function and motivation.

Question.9. Define food supplements.
Answer. Food supplements, also known as dietary supplements, are meant to improve your diet by providing vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes and other beneficial substances in the form of capsules, soft gels, caps and tablets.

Question.10. How can exercise reduce blood sugar levels?
Answer. Exercise reduces blood sugar levels by preventing sugar from accumulating in the blood by triggering muscles to take up more glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy. This can reduce a person’s risk of developing diabetes.

Question.11. Define motor development in 6-12 year old children.
Answer. After the age of 6 years, it becomes increasingly difficult to describe changes and differences in motor skills development of a child. The following characteristics are evident:

  1.  Changes are more subtle and are often to fine motor skills only.
  2.  By the age of one year, eye-hand coordination has developed to being very good.
  3. Growth is relatively slow.
  4.  This stage is terminated by the onset of puberty.
  5.  Motor skills are perfected and stabilized.
  6.  Links can be made to physical developments.

The following are assessed during this stage:

  1.  Running This will become faster depending on the length of stride and tempo.
  2.  Jumping The ability to jump higher will become greater due to body size, weight, age and strength.
  3. Throwing Boys begin to throw further with a better technique and accuracy.
  4. Balancing and Coordination This increases as the child becomes older and control is : perfected.

Question.12. How can the minimum muscular strength for children be assessed?
Answer. To assess minimum muscular strength for children between 9 and 12 years of age (older pediatric age group) we can use Kraus-Weber Tests. These tests don’t require sophisticated equipment and are much easier to administer than traditional tools for analyzing muscular fitness like Electromyogram (EMG).

Question.13. How does exercise control weight and strengthen bones?
Answer. Regular exercise controls weight by burning the excess calories gained by consuming food. Exercise takes the fat away and removes the excess weight. Exercise also strengthens bones by increasing the bone density, making them stronger. Lack of exercise causes bones to lower their density, becoming weak, fragile and porous.

Question.14. Elaborate on the disadvantages of food supplements.
Answer. Food supplements should be taken only when there is a lack of a proper nutritious diet. If they are not required, taking them may be harmful. For instance, vitamin E supplement causes increase in prostate cancer in males, calcium supplement results in greater risk of heart attacks etc.

Question.15. Explain the disadvantages of unsupervised weight training.
Answer. While performing unsupervised weight training, there is a risk of getting injured if you are notable to perform the required number of repetitions, but keep on trying. If flexibility exercises are not carried on simultaneously with weight training, it will reduce the flexibility of your body also.

5 Marks Questions
Question.16. Elaborate about the motor development stages in children.
Answer. There are three stages of motor development in children

  1. Infanthood or Infancy (0 to 2 years) The child learns new motor skills. For instance, the stepping reflex promotes development of areas of the cortex that govern voluntary walking.
  2. Early Childhood (2 to 6 years) The period of the most rapid development of motor behaviours is the period between 2 and 6 years. Skills that appear are basic locomotor, ball-handling, fine eye-hand coordination, walking leading to running, jumping, hopping, galloping and skipping as well as climbing.
  3.  Later Childhood (6 to 12 years) After the age of 6 years, all motor skills developed in the earlier stages are enhanced. Differences in gender also come into play at this stage.

Question.17. Describe the types of motor skills. What are the factors affecting motor development in children?
Answer. The types of motor skills are motor control of the body starting from the head down to the legs and motor control of the body starting from the centre of the body outward. This means that the head, trunk and arm control are mastered before the coordination of the hands and fingers. Then the child is able to explore its environment further by grasping things, turning them over, and seeing what happens when they are released. These are called fine motor skills.
The factors affecting motor development in children are

  1. Biological
  2.  Environmental
  3.  Nutrition related
  4. Physical activity related
  5. Opportunity related
  6.  Sensory impairments related
  7.  Postural deformities related
  8.  Obesity related

Question.18. Explain the physical and physiological benefits of exercise on children.
Answer. Physical and physiological benefits of exercise on children are:

  1. Regular exercise helps in controlling weight by burning excess fat.
  2.  Exercise strengthens bones by increasing their density, thus preventing them from becoming porous and weak.
  3.  Exercise enhances lung capacity and efficiency in inhalation and exhalation.
  4.  Exercise changes the structure of the brain by sensory stimulation.
  5.  Exercise improves the performance and efficiency of the heart.
  6.  Exercise boosts the energy level by delivering more oxygen and nutrients to body tissues.
  7.  Exercise reduces blood sugar level by taking up more glucose from the blood for energy.
  8.  Exercise builds strong and healthy muscles.
  9. Exercise helps in faster motor development in children.
  10.  Exercise helps in absorbing food more efficiently, thus improving the digestive process.
  11.  Exercise improves neuromuscular coordination.
  12.  Exercise helps us in staying healthy overall.

Question.19. Suggest at what age children should be exposed to weight training. Justify your answer.
Answer. Children may be exposed to weight training not earlier than 12 years, as development of gross and fine motor skills occurs till this age and weight training should be started only after the motor skills are fully developed. Even after 12 years age, weight training by adolescents must be supervised by an experienced coach, as the children must learn the correct techniques and procedures, as many injuries occur when children compete with one another in lifting more weight. Recent research has indicated that adolescents can gain strength by weight training.

Question.20. What is the role of physical activities in improving the quality of life?
Answer. Physical activities include activities such as running, walking, jumping, cycling, playing games and sports etc. Quality of life means how we live our lives and our health condition. Physical activities have an important role in improving the quality of life through the following means .

  1. Improving the health of the heart by improving the balance of cholesterol in our bodies and lowering the blood pressure.
  2.  Improving mental health by relieving anxiety, stress, tension, anger and depression.
  3.  Controlling the weight by burning calories.
  4.  Preventing bone and joint problems by increasing bone density and raising the capacity of joints to bear weight.
  5. Reducing the chances of diabetes and cancer.
  6. Prolonging optimal health and reducing risk of an early death.

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